January 1, 1991
The warble is a major economic pest of cattle in Alberta. Warble grubs, which are the larval stage of the "heelfly," spend over nine months in cattle as internal parasites. During this period they damage the meat and hide of infested animals and are responsible for reduced milk production in...
January 1, 1993
Black flies, which number about 100 species in Canada, occur in varying abundance in all parts of the country. Adult females feed on blood, causing irritation and discomfort to humans, domestic and wild mammals and birds. Apart from the annoyance and discomfort, black flies cause economic losses...